Summary of the Culture Development Strategy for the City of Ljubljana 2020-2023 with Guidelines to 202715. 12. 2020
CULTURE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FOR THE CITY OF LJUBLJANA 2020 – 2023 WITH GUIDELINES TO 2027
1.1 Towards new cultural challenges
1.2 Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in the field of culture in MOL
1.3 Graphical presentation of MOL’s budgetary outturn for culture (2016-2019)
- Core values
- Fundamental principles of the MOL’s cultural policy
- Crisis culture management
- General strategic objectives
- Support for the public and non-governmental sectors in culture as promoters of cultural development of MOL
1.1 Towards new cultural challenges
Since 2008, the City of Ljubljana (Mestna Občina Ljubljana; hereinafter referred to as MOL) has been planning and implementing its cultural policy on the basis of four-year strategies for the development of culture in the city. The culture development strategy in MOL 2020–2023, with guidelines to 2027, is the fourth strategy paper setting out the objectives, actions and activities of MOL in the field of culture over the next four years. After three consecutive cultural strategies, we conclude that the coordinated and planned operation of the Department of Culture of the City Administration of MOL (hereinafter referred to as the Department of Culture), of all bodies of the MOL’s City Administration, the MOL’s City Council, public institutions and non-governmental organisations (hereinafter referred to as NGOs) in the field of culture involved in the design, adoption and implementation of the MOL’s cultural policy shows its results in the continuous increase in breadth, innovation and diversity of cultural offer and artistic creation. The achievements, which are visible both in numerous cultural events, excellent artistic achievements, as well as in the modernised cultural infrastructure (the Švicarija Creative Centre, the Plečnik House, the Art Centre Pionirski Dom, the Gmajnice Animal Shelter, the Ljubljana Castle etc.), are primarily the result of the recognised importance of culture for the sustainable development of MOL, as a key factor of the quality of life of its citizens.
The fourth strategy paper began to emerge under normal circumstances and was completed in extraordinary circumstances when Slovenia and the whole world faced an entirely new kind of crisis caused by a global viral infection that has in many ways radically changed the way of life of every citizen of MOL and of the country as such. The new situation also raises new questions regarding the functioning of both public cultural institutions, professional and amateur NGOs in the field of culture as well as individual artists. In an emergency situation, it is not only the implementation of cultural projects and programmes that is uncertain, but also the basic financial and social existence of all stakeholders in the process of creation, and most of all the self-employed professionals in culture, is at risk. One of the most commonly used words in these times of crisis is solidarity, which is, and that is no coincidence, the basic theme of MOL’s candidacy for the title of the European Capital of Culture 2025 (hereinafter referred to as ECoC 2025).
Another particular circumstance defining the priorities and objectives of the new cultural strategy is the fact that at the end of February 2020, MOL, together with three Slovenian cities (Nova Gorica, Ptuj and Piran) was shortlisted as cities competing for the title of ECoC 2025. Preparing a candidacy is in itself a particularly challenging and extensive professional task, which demands a series of precise answers, on the basis of concrete and achievable projects, to the key question: How to put culture in the context of the long-term development of MOL? We have thus used the preparations for the candidacy to define the main infrastructure and programme projects for the next four-year period, while at the same time providing a thorough conceptual reflection on how MOL can facilitate its economic and social development through culture. The concept of culture-based urban development as a conceptual basis of this strategy rests on a broader understanding of culture that goes beyond traditional (administrative) divisions of cultural activities into art, cultural heritage, librarianship, creative industries, etc. The concept also includes a dimension of sustainable, circular development, particularly in terms of the importance of mobilising creative forces to create innovative solutions and in the interlinking of cultural heritage, including crafts, into new circular business models based on repair, refurbishment, and re-use to help keep these different forms of value in the long term.
So far, MOL's concern for the field of culture has also by far exceeded the statutory obligations of the local community, which is reflected in the co-financing and support of a number of artistic and cultural programmes and projects. Legislative regulations, like the absence of a national programme for culture as a national cultural strategy for a number of years, do not hinder MOL from implementing a responsible cultural policy that ensures stable conditions for all artists, public cultural institutions, cultural NGOs and other cultural life players acting in the public interest.
There is no doubt that the diversity, quality, accessibility, and quantity of cultural offer that both the citizens and visitors to Ljubljana can enjoy exceeds the average of cultural offers in other European cities comparable in size. Although Ljubljana is the cultural capital of Slovenia, it is right not to look around other cities, but to set bold goals when it comes to achieving the highest level of cultural standard and creativity. Over the next four years, we will further enhance the quality of cultural life and the international visibility of Ljubljana, making it even more recognisable around the world not only for its top cultural and artistic offer in npr. content, performances, events, agenda, offering, experience , but also for the fact that culture is embedded in all facets of life of our citizens. Achieving the latter objective is a particularly great challenge for all artists and cultural workers, regardless of whether they are employed in public cultural institutions, operate within NGOs in the field of culture, or are independent creative professionals in the field of culture. Moreover, it is an objective the realisation of which requires active linking of the cultural and creative sectors with other sectors, in particular with the areas of education, youth policy, tourism, social protection, international cooperation, spatial planning and environmental protection.
Compared to past strategic documents, the new cultural strategy brings a series of substantive innovations that, conceptually, represent the establishment of a new paradigm of MOL’s cultural policy. We raise the scale of ambition to a higher level. Our vantage point is the realisation that only the cultural policy that is able to constantly adapt and respond to the challenges of both the cultural and creative sectors and society as a whole is progressive. Among the substantive novelties introduced by MOL in line with the present strategy in the field of culture by the end of 2023, we highlight the following:
- enhanced international orientation with a view to making Ljubljana even stronger as a globally recognisable city, offering cultural and artistic programmes of the highest quality to its citizens and visitors,
- enhanced cultural cooperation with all 25 municipalities within the Ljubljana Urban Region with the aim of creating new audiences, a new regional cultural identity, permanent links between cultural producers and ensuring the mobility of artists,
- extension of the network of artist residencies for Slovene and foreign artists,
- support for participatory cultural projects and programmes that strengthen social cohesion and the inclusion of members of vulnerable groups in social life,
- support for community projects proposed by MOL’s citizens with a view to improving the quality of life in their local environments,
- the introduction of transdisciplinary cultural programmes as a new call area to overcome any restrictions on artistic creativity resulting from the administrative classification of programmes by cultural activity,
- the establishment of a system (by 2023 at the latest) enabling the implementation of the so-called "artistic share" of MOL’s investment projects. To bodies of local communities and legal persons governed by public law founded by local communities, this measure applies in the form of a recommendation (Article 79a of the Exercising of the Public Interest in Culture Act).
1.2 Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in the field of culture in MOL
The strategic objectives and actions of the MOL’s cultural policy stem from the following identified strengths and weaknesses as well as opportunities and threats for the further development of culture in the area of MOL:
– stable funding of art and culture from MOL’s budget with a multi-annual trend of increasing MOL’s support to the cultural and creative sectors
– extremely rich and diverse cultural offer comparable to cultural offers in much larger European cities
– a large number of professional cultural producers organising thousands of top artistic and cultural events each year: 11 MOL’s public cultural institutions and 18 national public cultural institutions, 56 NGOs in the field of culture (hereinafter referred to as NGOs), co-financed on the basis of four-year contracts, over 100 other NGOs and independent artists, over 100 amateur cultural societies, etc.
– MOL demonstrated the ability to organise and carry out major international events in line with the highest professional standards, such as the World Capital of the Book 2010 and the UNESCO City of Literature (every year since 2015)
– a large part of the top artistic and cultural offer goes beyond the local and regional character and is aimed not only at citizens of MOL, but at all citizens of Slovenia and foreign visitors
– the attractiveness of Ljubljana to tourists due to its rich cultural heritage and its varied offer of both high and popular culture
– Ljubljana's international visibility as a city with a vibrant artistic community
– structured dialogue of the Department of Culture with representatives of all segments of the cultural sector, which is the basis for the joint formulation of key objectives and actions of MOL’s cultural policy and for ongoing resolution of current problems
– numerous festivals and free cultural events in public areas
– top cultural and arts education programmes (Festival of Culture and Art Education “Beavers”), which are international examples of good practice
– coordinated planning and implementation of strategic objectives and cultural policy activities with other MOL’s public policies, in particular through tourism, education, spatial, social, international, environmental and youth policies
– preserved nature and green spaces in the city, which offer an ambient space for the performance of cultural events
– the title Green Capital of Europe 2016 is an excellent starting point for the accelerated development of environmental and nature protection education
– mismatch of the strategic objectives of MOL and the State in the field of due to the fact that the national cultural programme has not been available for a number of years
– the State has not systemically addressed issues (except in the field of cultural heritage protection) of the co-financing of six public institutions established by MOL, which are mainly co-financed by the State that has not increased the share of co-financing for years, or has even reduced it
– the disproportion between the scope of the cultural offer in the inner-city centre and other areas of MOL, which has been decreasing in recent years
– over-dependence on state and EU funds for major infrastructure projects and the restoration of cultural monuments
– inadequate spatial situation of some public institutions (e.g., the Ljubljana City Theatre – MGL)
– obsolete technical equipment of certain public institutions and NGOs in the field of culture
– lack of suitable storage and workspaces in studios for NGOs and self-employed professionals in culture
– lack of rehearsal facilities for performing arts, especially in the field of contemporary dance, performance and new/experimental/transdisciplinary artistic practices (produced and primarily represented by professional NGOs)
– lack of rehearsal spaces and halls for youth creativity
– MOL being in the most advanced region of the country represents a bad starting point for obtaining European funds
– strengthening Ljubljana's international reputation as a "city of culture", which sets an example for other European and world cities showing how culture is integrated into the life of the city as a key element of quality of life
– obtaining the title European Capital of Culture 2025
– co-financing of strategic projects (the Cukrarna Gallery, the Rog Centre, the City Cinema Miniplex, the Cukrarna Palace, the Baraga Seminary) from EU funds
– development of MOL’s cultural diplomacy, which will enhance the international visibility not only of Ljubljana, but also of the Ljubljana Urban Region and the whole country
– development of intense partnerships in the field of art and culture with European cities, as well as with cities on other continents
– inclusion of "Plečnik's Ljubljana", i.e., selected building and urban design works by architect Jože Plečnik, to the UNESCO World Heritage List
– strengthening regional cultural cooperation and closer integration with the 25 municipalities of the Ljubljana Urban Region
– strengthening cultural supply outside the inner-city centre in cooperation with MOL’s districts
– increasing the scope of cultural programmes and projects contributing to better social inclusion of vulnerable and marginalised social groups
– creating new jobs in the cultural and creative sectors
– strengthening cultural offer in digital form
– inclusion of MOL’s culture projects in national strategy papers
– sustainable implementation of events, high green awareness of citizens, potential for re-use of materials
– lack of attention and understanding of the national cultural policy for MOL’s strategic projects in the field of culture, which are of national and international nature
– insufficient support from the Ministry of Culture and other state institutions in pursuing common strategic objectives (e.g., in the field of development of regional cultural cooperation and international cultural relations)
– outdated legal regulation that does not follow changes in the way modern cultural content is produced, distributed and consumed
– reduction in the share of co-financing of infrastructure projects from the state budget and EU funds (e.g., reduction of cohesion policy funding)
– reduction in the number of foreign and domestic visitors to cultural events (cultural tourism) due to the economic crisis or other unforeseeable circumstances (e.g., risk of viral infection)
– devastation of cultural heritage as a result of vandalism
– excessive concentration of cultural production of NGOs in the field of culture in the second half of the year
– strengthening of the trend of cuts from the state budget for public institutions established by MOL that are mostly co-financed from the state budget
1.3 Graphical presentation of MOL’s budgetary outturn for culture (2015-2019)
Data covering both funding for operations, programmes and projects, and for the restoration of public cultural infrastructure show that MOL was steadily increasing cultural funding over the last five years. The increase in the share of culture within MOL’s budget by 64.7% in the period 2015-2019 ranks Ljubljana among the leading European cities in the field of systematic care for culture. It is not surprising that Ljubljana is becoming an example to cultural policy makers in other European cities, especially in the nearby region of Central and South-Eastern Europe.
Annual MOL budget for culture in the city (in EUR)
Annual budget for culture in the city (in % of the total annual budget for the city)
The vision of MOL is to become a global city of culture, a city recognisable throughout the world by the wealth of its cultural heritage, contemporary cultural infrastructure, which enables world-class artistic creation, following a vibrant cultural pulse and excellence of the entire cultural offer. We want to be a city that enables and protects free artistic expression for both the Slovene and Ljubljana artistic community and for all visiting artists.
We want to set an example for other cities in terms of the integration of culture in all segments of the lives of our citizens, as well as in the city as a whole. Our vision is to become a city that is fundamentally marked by culture representing part of everyday life, which is reflected at every step in the attitude of its citizens both to the common material and immaterial heritage and to other people, nature and the urban environment.
The mission of MOL in the field of culture is to provide public cultural goods and services to all MOL’s citizens. An essential part of our mission is to expand the accessibility of high-quality cultural content financed or co-financed from MOL’s budget. In doing so, we pay particular attention to social groups and individuals who, for economic, social, or other reasons, have an impeded access to culture.
MOL fulfils its mission by ensuring financial, infrastructural, organisational and other conditions for the smooth functioning of public cultural institutions of MOL, NGOs in the field of culture, amateur cultural societies, independent creative professionals in diverse artistic and cultural fields and other organisations operating in the public interest and creating quality cultural goods and services that, because of their importance for the cultural identity of Ljubljana, cannot be left to the market mechanisms.
4. Core values
Artistic and cultural creation is based on the values of freedom of expression, solidarity, tolerance, openness, respect for diversity and intercultural dialogue. The participation of citizens in cultural life reinforces mutual understanding and a sense of belonging to the community.
For MOL, culture is a value in itself that enriches the quality of life of every citizen, and at the city level it is a powerful building block of community identity.
For MOL, culture is a public good, not a commercial commodity, because cultural goods and services have a lasting spiritual value that is not demonstrated solely by immediate direct economic effects.
MOL supports the cultural and artistic activities of public institutions, NGOs and amateur organisations for the sake of values intrinsic to culture and art and opposes any economic or political instrumentalisation that would allow for the reduction of budget support.
5. Fundamental principles of MOL’s cultural policy
MOL's cultural policy is based on the following fundamental principles:
- the diversity of artistic and cultural content, including support for all forms of artistic and cultural creation that meet the professional criteria of quality and superiority;
- the accessibility of public cultural goods and services to all citizens of MOL, irrespective of their social status, life span, language, ethnicity, impairment, or any other personal circumstance;
- the right of all MOL’s citizens to take part in cultural life.
6. Managing culture in crisis situations
As mentioned above, this strategy is emerging in an emergency situation where there is still a lot of uncertainty about the form and manner in which cultural events are to be carried out in 2020 and perhaps beyond. Culture is one of the sectors most affected by the pandemic. Cultural institutions were among the first public and private institutions to close their doors to visitors, and one of the first government measures as a result of the declared epidemic was precisely the ban on gathering people at public events indoors. The suspension of activities in culture has particularly severely affected all those who are not in a regular employment relationship in public cultural institutions or who independently (through personal work) pursue professions in culture (artistic and supporting professions). The self-employed professionals in culture, there are around 3,000 of them in Slovenia, most of whom reside in MOL’s area, are also the most vulnerable group of cultural workers. As precarious workers, they are existentially dependent on temporary and occasional work activities, so they have lower social security. During the (first) declared epidemic, both public institutions and various NGOs in the field of culture in MOL organised their operation in such a manner that they uploaded their content on the internet and worked online while looking for ways to keep in touch with their audience. The importance of art and culture is crucial in times of crisis, as it was shown that it was impossible to spend that time without quality educational content, film, books, music, recordings of theatrical performances.
Notwithstanding this, the challenge to which the answer will have to be found through dialogue with both public institutions and NGOs and the self-employed professionals in culture is the question of the appropriate relationship between cultural events in physical space and cultural content online. Both segments of cultural offer are extremely important, and they complement each other. Cultural offer online cannot replace the living art that is crucial to people. The question of the appropriate relationship between cultural events in institutions and outdoor cultural events is equally important.
- Because we are aware of the large economic and social importance of culture, in 2020, as in the previous 14 years, the budgetary resources earmarked by MOL for culture are not being reduced, and all investments in the field of cultural infrastructure continue.
- MOL will maintain budgetary stability in the period 2021-2023, which is closely linked to the realisation of key infrastructure projects (the Cukrarna Gallery, the City Cinema Miniplex, the Rog Centre, etc.) and the possible awarding of the title European Capital of Culture for 2025.
- As the founder of 11 cultural public institutions, MOL will conscientiously ensure the stability of their operation, as this means preserving quality artistic content and the continuity and stability of cooperation between public institutions, the self-employed professionals in culture, and NGOs.
- The planned infrastructure projects, in particular capital investments in cultural facilities, will continue to be carried out in accordance with MOL’s budgetary possibilities, whereby the implementation dynamics, if necessary, will be adapted to the current situation.
- The Department of Culture will coordinate the dynamics and manner of the implementation of cultural programmes and projects approved by expert committees with each provider separately, taking into account the changed circumstances and looking for the best solutions to suit all those involved in the process, thus maintaining the highest level of professionalism and quality of performance.
- In order to find the best mechanisms for managing culture, MOL will strengthen international cooperation and the exchange of experience with other European cities, especially cities such as Berlin and Vienna, whose cultural policy is also an example for other cities.
- The MOL will intensify the dialogue with the self-employed professionals in culture and representatives of professional NGOs in the field of culture, with a view to providing timely information regarding the situation of the non-governmental civil sector in culture and the possible need to introduce temporary measures of additional MOL’s financial assistance for the most deprived groups of artists and creative professionals.
During the pandemic, the Department of Culture launched a cycle of online videoconferences and talks with European artists and cultural workers and representatives of European cities entitled "A Plan B for the Cultural Policies of European cities" (and subtitled: "How European Cities Help Culture in the Times of Crisis"). The talks are ongoing and will take place in cooperation with Motovila – Centre for the promotion of cooperation in the cultural and creative sectors (Creative Europe Desk – CED Slovenia) and members of the Creative Europe – European Network of Cultural Centres. The aim of this project is to exchange experiences among European cities in providing assistance to artistic and cultural creative professionals in the times of crisis triggered by the pandemic of the new coronavirus. Examples of good practice can set an example for other European cities, so the different experiences are very useful at a time when it is necessary to find new ways of the operation of cultural entities: How do European cities help the cultural and creative sectors in the times of crisis? What general and specific (sectoral) measures are they taking? What forms of direct (monetary) and indirect (non-monetary) assistance can achieve the best effects? How is the financial sustainability of the temporary measures taken by some cities guaranteed? What new support mechanisms should be built into the city's cultural strategies? We want to find answers to these and similar questions by talking to artists, creative professionals, cultural institutions, representatives of the city's cultural authorities and other stakeholders of cultural and political life in European cities.
7. General strategic objectives
The general objectives of the 2020-2023 cultural policy are as follows:
- the creation of Ljubljana as a global city of culture, recognisable as the centre of world-class culture and art,
- strengthening the participation of MOL’s citizens in cultural life by promoting cultural participation as an essential component of quality of life,
- increasing the accessibility of quality cultural content for all MOL’s citizens,
- strengthening regional cultural cooperation,
- strengthening the international visibility of Ljubljana as a city friendly to artists from all over the world and with a modern network of artist residencies,
- support for participatory cultural projects and programmes that strengthen social cohesion and the involvement of vulnerable groups in social life,
- promoting the active cultural life of citizens in the MOL’s district communities through community artistic projects,
- improvement of infrastructure conditions and modernisation of obsolete technical equipment for the operation of public institutions in the field of culture established by MOL (the Cukrarna Gallery, the Cukrarna Palace, the City Cinema Miniplex, the Baraga Seminary, the Ljubljana Festival, Ljubljana Zoo, etc.),
- consolidation of financial, infrastructural and other conditions for the operation of the non-governmental cultural sector,
- strengthening inter-regional integration and cooperation of cultural programme operators and projects, irrespective of their legal status, which goes beyond traditional administrative divisions into cultural activities,
- strengthening the integration and cooperation between national public institutions and MOL’s public institutions in the field of culture,
- strengthening cooperation between NGOs and public institutions in the field of culture and among NGOs themselves,
- strengthening the cross-sectoral links of culture with the environment, education, youth, social protection, and health,
- strengthening the economic potential of the creative sector,
- increasing the number of tourists arriving due to the rich cultural heritage and diverse cultural events,
- improving the accessibility of cultural content in the digital environment,
- support for books and reading programmes under our UNESCO City of Literature title,
- ensure an adequate presentation of MOL’s cultural heritage to improve the quality of the tourist offer,
- inclusion of the building and urban design works by architect Jože Plečnik in Ljubljana to the UNESCO World Heritage List,
- obtain the title of the European Capital of Culture 2025,
- strengthening the sustainable implementation of cultural events in line with our long-term orientation that culture is an important pillar of MOL’s sustainable development,
- support for projects and programmes enabling young people to be involved in cultural social life and enabling their professional development in the field of art and creativity,
- raising awareness among MOL’s citizens regarding animal protection, nature protection and the importance of biodiversity as a reflection of the city's culture.
The achieving of the above general objectives will improve the conditions for the work of the artistic or creative community, enhance the satisfaction of citizens with cultural offer, and make Ljubljana one of the best cultural and creative cities in the world.
8. Support to the public and non-governmental sector in culture as promoters of the cultural development of MOL
The public and non-governmental sectors in culture are the bearers of MOL’s cultural development. In addition to public institutions in the field of culture established by MOL, the public sector also includes national public institutions in the field of culture, the Slovenian Book Agency (hereinafter referred to as JAK), the Slovenian Film Centre and the Public Fund for Cultural Activities of the Republic of Slovenia established by the State. Given that those national cultural institutions and state agencies or funds are financed mainly from the state budget, MOL’s support to their programmes is limited to projects which are also assessed as being of public interest to MOL. The non-governmental sector in culture consists of professional NGOs in the field of culture, amateur cultural societies and the self-employed professionals in culture. Private companies in culture operate mainly in the field of so-called cultural and creative industries but are not co-financed directly from MOL’s budget.
Although the programmes of public cultural institutions established by MOL go beyond local importance, the share of their co-financing from the state budget decreases year after year. In its annual co-financing decisions, the Ministry of Culture derives from the assessment that MOL as a responsible founder, can take on an increasing share of co-financing. For Ljubljana cultural institutions this means, among other things, that the quality of their programmes is not recognised, and that the important role they play not only in the regional and national arena, but also internationally, is neglected.
Even in co-financing of four-year programmes of NGOs in the field of culture the situation is not significantly different. While MOL strives to increase the number of high-quality co-financed public cultural programmes (49 programmes in the period 2016-2019, and 56 programmes in the period 2020-2023), which is based on the belief that four-year co-financing means ensuring stable conditions for professional planning and implementation of programmes, the Ministry of Culture limits the number of co-financed public cultural programmes of NGOs in the field of culture through tendering conditions and criteria.
The division into so-called "institutional" and "non-institutional" providers of cultural programmes and projects is now completely obsolete, as for the creation of high-quality cultural content it is necessary to connect cultural producers, regardless of their legal status, in terms of their programmes and organisation. In this context, MOL’s long-term objective is to strengthen the cooperation of cultural producers at all levels, namely:
- between public cultural institutions established by MOL and public cultural institutions established by the State,
- between public institutions and NGOs,
- among NGOs themselves (both professional and amateur).
With this long-term objective, MOL will implement the following measures over the period 2020-2023:
- maintaining stable financial, infrastructural and other operating conditions for MOL’s public institutions as well as NGOs in the field of culture, amateur cultural societies, and other providers of cultural programmes and projects financed from MOL’s budget,
- enrichment of public cultural infrastructure with new facilities: the Cukrarna Gallery, the Cukrarna Palace, the City Cinema Miniplex, the Rog Centre, etc.,
- improving spatial conditions for the operation of professional NGOs and the self-employed professionals in culture, including storage facilities,
- support for co-production projects of MOL’s public institutions and national public institutions in the field of culture,
- strengthening the programming cooperation of producers who create quality cultural content in the public interest and are based in MOL’s area, with such producers within the Ljubljana Urban Region,
- strengthening the programme cooperation of Ljubljana cultural producers with European and global cultural institutions and other cultural event organisers,
- the planned integration of MOL’s public institutions and state public institutions in the field of culture and professional and amateur NGOs in the field of culture into organised tourist offer of MOL,
- support for greater involvement of young artists in the programmes of MOL’s public cultural institutions and NGOs in the field of culture for which MOL co-finances four-year programmes,
- update of the electronic application system (e-call) for four-year programme calls and annual project calls that MOL began introducing in 2016,
- development of a system of co-financing of NGO projects in the field of culture co-financed from the EU budget.